Polymer surface modification is a topic that has been the object of a large number of investigations by academia and industry, but relatively little attention has been paid to surface activation technologies which, when appropriately utilized, make specific polymer-based surfaces receptive to value-adding interfaces such as inks, coating and adhesive formulations. Adhesion strength is generally determined by the properties of a base material and its interface. Optimizing adhesion strength can be accomplished by modifying these interfaces chemically and physically. As polymers are continually engineered to meet new product application requirements, optimizing the activation of these surfaces requires a fresh look at cost effective ways to etch, clean and functionalize them. These demands require detailed information on the surface treatment of classic materials, as well as an examination of the latest surface treatment machine designs available anywhere in the world today which are used to process these materials. There are four full chapters devoted specifically to corona, ozone, flame, and plasma discharge surface treatment technologies; and an interesting and useful identification of common adhesion maladies. This book describes the primary polymer adhesion issues faced by manufacturers, processors and converters, to outline a variety of methods for attaining an appropriately activated surface, and to provide the diagnostics for various adhesion promotion issues which the reader seeks to troubleshoot.
The macroeconomic development of most major industrial economies is characterised by boom-bust cycles. Normally such boom-bust cycles are driven by specific sectors of the economy. In the financial meltdown of the years 2007-9 it was the credit sector and the real-estate sector that were the main driving forces. This book takes on the challenge of interpreting and modelling this meltdown. In doing so it revives the traditional Keynesian approach to the financial-real economy interaction and the business cycle, extending it in several important ways. In particular, it adopts the Keynesian view of a hierarchy of markets and introduces a detailed financial sector into the traditional Keynesian framework. The approach of the book goes beyond the currently dominant paradigm based on the representative agent, market clearing and rational economic agents. Instead it proposes an economy populated with heterogeneous, rationally bounded agents attempting to cope with disequilibria in various markets.