The emergence of urbanism in Iraq occurred under the distinctive climatic conditions of the Mesopotamian plain; rainy winters and extremely hot summers profoundly affected the formation and development of these early cities. Sunlight and Shade in the First Cities explores the relationship between society, culture and lived experience through the way in which sunlight was manipulated in the urban built environment. Light is approached as both a physical phenomenon, which affects comfort and the practical usability of space, and as a symbol rich in social and religious meaning. Through the reconstruction of ancient urban light environments, to the extent possible from the archaeological remains, the location, the timing, and meaning of activities within early Mesopotamian cities become accessible. Sunlight is shown to have influenced the formation and symbolism of urban architecture and shaped the sensory experience of urban life. From cities as part of the sunlit landscape, this work progresses to consider city forms as a whole and then to the examination of architectural types; residential, sacred and palatial. Architectural analysis is complemented by analysis of contemporary textual sources, along with iconographic and artefactual evidence. The cities under detailed examination are limited to those on the Mesopotamian plain, focusing on the Early Dynastic periods up to the end of the second millennium BC. This volume demonstrates the utility of light as a tool with which to analyze, not just ancient Mesopotamian settlements, but the built environment of any past society, especially where provision of, or protection from sunlight critically affects life. The active influence of sunlight is demonstrated within Mesopotamian cities at every scale of analysis.
Recent achievements in sunlight concentration techniques have increased the potential of solar power as a viable source of renewable energy. Through its critical analysis of current methods, Photovoltaic Conversion of Concentrated Sunlight provides a comprehensive treatment of the issues involved in the creation of an efficient and cost-effective sustainable power resource. The authors introduce significant new original research and offer an insight into previously inaccessible Russian studies. Logically structured, the text presents both theoretical and practical advances in the field. Features include:<br> * Discussion of fabrication problems for both terrestrial and space photovoltaic installations<br> * Investigation of the impact of resistive losses on the operation of solar cells and new procedures for measuring components of internal resistance<br> * Explanation of the semiconductor physics underlying photovoltaics<br> * Examination of the most efficient concentrator solar cell structures and materials plus exploration of ways to improve cell performance<br> * Original theoretical and experimental results on luminescence phenomena in concentrator cells<br> * Useful measurement techniques for the determination of diagnostic cell parameters<br> * Analysis of energy characteristics of photovoltaic installations with high and low concentration ratios<br> An invaluable asset to industrialists and academics concerned with semiconductors and photovoltaics, this book will also serve environmental scientists through its examination of the problems associated with large-scale use of this ecological technology.
Absence makes the heart grow fonder--and love grow stronger--in three romantic fairy tale retellings from the author of "Once."
In "Winter's Child," Grace's best friend is lured from home by a dazzling Snow Queen. Grace sets out on a dangerous, mystical journey to find him, and along the way, she discovers the meaning of true love.