This book is in part a response to the attempts of governments to address increasing concerns over such environmental issues as the impact of climate change; carbon emissions; pressures from overpopulation of cities; coal seam gas extraction and depleting natural resources. The authors have developed a Sustainable Communities Framework (SCF) which incorporates social-cultural, environmental and economic sustainability principles in the process of urban planning. The authors propose a five-step SCF built on an application of sustainability tables. The book examines a wide range of urban planning practices utilizing sustainability criteria, outlining both qualitative and quantitative tools. Separate chapters discuss application of the SCF to both the natural environment and the built environment. This framework is applied to a case study of the outer Sydney growth area of Wyong Shire, Central Coast, NSW, Australia. Addressing the question of how best to measure the environment, the authors present a table for selecting indicators of sustainability, and outline sustainability scorecards which use color-coded ratings of green, red and amber to measure indicators of sustainability. The authors show how aggregating these ratings allows the framework to be scaled up for application to larger areas. Finally, the authors show how scorecards can be incorporated in sustainability reports, with actions and monitoring components. The authors also examine urban planning education including land use planning, natural resource planning and sustainable urban planning, focusing on the extent to which schools incorporate principles of sustainability. The authors offer their critique on the movement of planning practices towards a more coordinated and holistic framework, in incorporating sustainability principles. Sustainable Communities: A Framework for Planning concludes by drawing a future scenario on the application of the SCF to incorporate principles of sustainability into urban planning. The authors propose future options for SCF applications, including adopting a systems program; environmental performance monitoring and showing how the framework will accommodate the social-cultural and economic components of sustainability, in addition to the environmental ones as examined in the case study.
"Born during the "cut and run" days of early twentieth century America, Weyerhaeuser defied conventional industry logic by holding onto timberlands after they were cut rather than walking away. By the late 1930s, the company was faced with a decision: What to do with previously logged land on which natural regeneration had been ineffective. It decided to regenerate forests and grow timber as a crop, first by seeding harvested areas (1940s) and later by planting seedlings (1950s to present). Beginning in the 1960s, Weyerhaeuser began producing seedlings in nurseries and integrated replanting into its plantation operations. Following this strategy, Weyerhaeuser, headquartered in Federal Way, Washington, has become the world's largest private owner of standing softwood timber, North America's largest producer of softwood lumber, and the world's largest supplier of softwood pulp.Weyerhaeuser initiated sustained yield forestry to provide a guaranteed and consistent supply of wood, not out of direct concern for the environment. However, the company has come to realize that by investing in a long-term strategy, their decisions have positive ecological and economic consequences that will amplify into the future. Over the past thirty years, Weyerhaeuser has developed a form of sustainable forestry based upon high-yield plantations that are among the most productive in the world. This high-yield model provides higher returns while simultaneously minimizing overall environmental impacts by producing high-quality wood and fiber on substantially fewer, continuously regenerated, acres. In this sense, the Weyerhaeuser Forestry model may facilitate both environmental and economic sustainability."
Trade, Environment and Sustainable Development explores the linkages between the objectives of liberalised international trade, protection of the environment and sustainable development. It is an anthology of essays by leading experts, key government officials and political leaders from the South Asian region, supported by officials of the OECD, UNCTAD and non-governmental organisations. Trade, Environment and Sustainable Development outlines the concerns of the developing nations of the South Asian region about the impacts on their trade and development from the environmental policies of the North. A range of country case and sector studies are presented, along with analysis of key regional issues.